For the purposes of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices, on 28th May 2004 the USA and Russia signed the bilateral Agreement Concerning Cooperation for the Transfer of Russian-Produced Research Reactor Nuclear Fuel to the Russian Federation that initiated the RRRFR Programme (Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Programme). This Agreement will remain in force until 28th May 2024.
In the framework of the RRRFR Programme, in order to prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons and suppress acts of nuclear terrorism, Russia, with IAEA’s support, is repatriating USSR/RF-produced high-enrichment SNF from Russian-design research reactors built abroad. Thirteen countries participate in the RRRFR Programme: Belarus, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Libya, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Uzbekistan, Ukraine and the Czech Republic. Intergovernmental agreements have been signed with all of them to cover SNF repatriation to Russia.
24 unified projects approved by the State Environmental Expert Review Panel have been prepared since 2006 under the RRRFR Programme.
36 failure-free SNF transportations have taken place in the framework of the RRRFR Programme since 2006.